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An official website of the United States government, Department of Justice.


National Recidivism and Reentry Data Program

BJS studies are the primary source of national statistics on recidivism and reentry for policymakers and practitioners. BJS has conducted recidivism research throughout its history, with the first publications released in the 1980s. Since then, BJS has expanded the program to include more data sources and improved data collection systems. 

Recidivism and Reentry

The Bureau of Justice Statistics (BJS) collects criminal history data from the FBI and state record repositories to study recidivism patterns of various offenders, including persons on probation or discharged from prison.

Pretrial Release

Pretrial release refers to the conditions of release from custody to which defendants must adhere during the time period between the filing of charges by law enforcement and court adjudication. After arrest charges are filed, the courts will decide whether a defendant can be released pending trial and other court proceedings. If a defendant is released pretrial, the courts may issue stipulations on that release that fall along a spectrum of least to most restrictive, often driven by the severity of the charges filed and the defendant’s prior criminal history.

Correctional Institutions

Inmates under the care and custody of a local, state, or federal correctional authority are generally housed in one of two types of facilities – a local jail or a state or federal prison. BJS collects data on the administration and operation of both types of facilities.  

Persons under jail supervision but not confined

All persons in community-based programs operated by jail facilities, including electronic monitoring, house arrest, community service, day reporting, and work programs. This group excludes persons on pre-trial release who are not in community‐based programs run by jails; persons under supervision of probation, parole, or other agencies; inmates on weekend programs; and inmates who participate in work‐release programs and return to jail at night.
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Federal Justice System

BJS maintains multiple data collections covering various aspects of the federal justice system encompassing law enforcement, prosecution, courts, and corrections. BJS data collections range from censuses of law enforcement and annual deaths in custody to federal case processing statistical information, describing the number of suspects/defendants from arrest to imprisonment.