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Law enforcement

Tribal Crime

To improve the availability of data on crime in Indian country, BJS creates data tables containing information reported by tribal law enforcement agencies to the FBI's Uniform Crime Reporting (UCR) Program and published in the annual Crime in United States (CIUS) publication.


Sworn law enforcement officers generally receive training throughout their careers, beginning with basic training for entry-level recruits, followed by in-service training. Basic law enforcement training academies are operated by state-level organizations such as—


A confinement facility generally operated under the authority of a sheriff, police chief, or county or city administrator. A small number of jails are privately operated. Regional jails include two or more jail jurisdictions with a formal agreement to operate a jail facility. Facilities include jails, detention centers, county or city correctional centers, special jail facilities (such as medical or treatment centers and pre-release centers), and temporary holding or lockup facilities that are part of the jail's combined function. Jails are intended for adults but can hold juveniles before or after their cases are adjudicated.
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Federal Justice System

BJS maintains multiple data collections covering various aspects of the federal justice system encompassing law enforcement, prosecution, courts, and corrections. BJS data collections range from censuses of law enforcement and annual deaths in custody to federal case processing statistical information, describing the number of suspects/defendants from arrest to imprisonment.


Law Enforcement

Law enforcement describes the agencies and employees responsible for enforcing laws, maintaining public order, and managing public safety. The primary duties of law enforcement include the investigation, apprehension, and detention of individuals suspected of criminal offenses. Some law enforcement agencies, particularly sheriff’s offices, also have a significant role in the detention of individuals convicted of criminal offenses.

Federal arrest-related death

A death that occurs when the event causing the death (e.g., gunshot wound, self- inflicted injury, cardiac arrest, fall from a height, drowning) occurs while the decedent's freedom to leave is restricted by federal law enforcement personnel acting in an official capacity. Arrest-related deaths include—
  • any death attributed to any use of force by federal law enforcement personnel
  • any death that occurred while the decedent's freedom to leave was restricted by federal law enforcement prior to, during, or following an arrest—
    • while detained for questioning or investigation (e.g., Terry stop)
    • during the process of apprehension (e.g., pursuit of criminal suspect or standoff with law enforcement)
    • while in the custody of, or shortly after restraint by, law enforcement (even if the decedent was not formally under arrest)
    • during transport to or from law enforcement, detention, incarceration, or medical facilities
    • any death while the decedent was confined in a temporary holding facility designed to hold detainees for no longer than 72 hours (e.g., booking center, holding area, or staging location)
    • any death that occurred during an interaction with federal law enforcement personnel during response to medical or mental-health assistance (e.g., response to suicidal persons).
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