Data pertain to all prisoners subject to confinement under the jurisdiction of a given correctional system, whether or not they are in its physical custody. The report assesses the sharp growth in prison population during 1983 and surveys corrections developments. Data encompass changes in the geographic distribution of prisoners; composition of the inmate population by race, sex, and Hispanic origin; and the rates of various types of admissions and releases. Information is provided on prison capacity, facility construction, and early releases. Tables in Appendix 1 include data on the number of persons in the custody of State and Federal correctional authorities in 1983. Appendix 2 describes the data collection method and the completeness of responses to various sections of the questionnaire, a facsimile of which is included.