During 1986-1987, data were collected from a nationally representative sample of 49,000 households. Respondents believed their assailants were under the influence of drugs or alcohol in about 36 percent of violent crime incidents, including 46 percent of rapes. In 43 percent of violent crimes, victims did not know if the assailant was under the influence of drugs or alcohol. Of violent crime victims, 73 percent took some self-protective measure. These included resisting or trying to capture the offender, followed by running away or hiding and persuading or appeasing the offender. About three-fifths of victims thought these measures had a positive effect, while 7 percent thought they had a negative effect, and 6 percent reported both positive and negative effects. Police came to see the victims in 76 percent of violent crimes, 71 percent of household crimes, and 54 percent of personal thefts. Police arrived within an hour of being notified for 95 percent of violent crimes, 85 percent of household crimes, and 84 percent of personal thefts. Police had later contact with victims in 37 to 25 percent of crimes. In about one in nine violent crimes reported to police, the victim received help or advice from a victim assistance office or agency other than police. New questions are appended. 15 tables.