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Probation and parole populations in the U.S., 1994


ADVANCE FOR RELEASE AT 5 P.M. EDT                            BJS
SUNDAY, AUGUST 27, 1995                             202/307-0784


     WASHINGTON, D.C. -- More than 5.1 million Americans--or
almost 2.7 percent of the adult population--were under some form
of correctional supervision last year, the Department of Justice
reported today.   Almost three-quarters of these men and women
were being supervised in the community on probation or parole. 
The others were confined in jail or prison.

     The number of adults incarcerated or under supervision in
the community increased 3.9 percent during 1994.  Since 1980 the
number has almost tripled, growing at an average annual rate of
7.6 percent.

     At the end of last year, 2,962,000 adults were on probation
under community supervision rather than incarceration.  An
additional 690,000 adults were on parole--conditional supervised
release after serving a prison term but subject to being returned
to incarceration for rule violations or other offenses.   Three-
quarters of probationers and parolees were required to maintain
regular contact with a supervising agency.  The other offenders
were not required to have regular contact (9 percent) or had
failed to report and could not be located (9 percent).

     Texas had the largest number of adults on probation and
parole with more than 503,000 under such supervision, followed by
California with 370,000.  At the end of 1994, more than 3.8
percent of all adults in Texas were on probation or parole.  

     Thirteen states reported that fewer than 1 percent of their
adult populations were on probation or parole.  North Dakota had
the lowest probation and parole supervision rate (450 offenders
per 100,000 adults), followed by West Virginia (517), Mississippi
(552) and Kentucky (553). 

     Overall, the state and federal probation and parole
populations rose by 2.0 percent during 1994.  Six states reported
increases of at least 10 percent in their probation populations, 
and 11 reported similar increases in their parole populations. 
Alabama, with a 14.5 percent rise in their probation population, 
and Iowa, with a 27.1 percent rise in the parole population, led
the nation.

     Twelve states and the Federal probation system reported a
decrease in the number of adults on probation, led by South
Dakota (down 6.2 percent), California (down 5.8 percent) and the
Federal system (down 6.8 percent). 

     Half of all offenders on probation in 1994 were on probation
for a felony.  A quarter were on probation for a misdemeanor. One
of every seven probationers had been convicted of driving while
intoxicated or under the influence of alcohol.  Almost all of the
offenders on parole (95 percent) had served a felony sentence in
jail or prison.

     Approximately, 21 percent of the nation's probationers were
women, as were 10 percent of the parolees.  

     About 58 percent of the adults on probation were white, and
32 percent were black.  Ninety percent of adults on parole were
men.  Fifty-one percent of adults on parole were white, 45
percent were black.  

     These data were collected and analyzed by Darrell Gilliard
and Allen Beck, statisticians at the Bureau of Justice Statistics
(BJS).  The NCJ number is NCJ-156432.  Additional information
about Department of Justice Statistics may be obtained from the
BJS Clearinghouse, Box 179, Annapolis Junction, Maryland 20701-
1079. The telephone number is 1-800/732-3277.  Fax orders to

     Data from tables and graphs used in many BJS reports can be
obtained in spreadsheet files on 5. and 3. inch diskettes by
calling 202/616-3283.          
After hours contact:  Doug Johnson at 703/644-0450


Owning Topic : T=BJS Press Releases - 93 E= 1589 Type = e

Date Published: August 27, 1995