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Correctional Populations in the United States, 2022 – Statistical Tables and Probation and Parole in the United States, 2022

THURSDAY, May 30, 2024, 10:00 AM ET                 Contact: OJP MEDIA
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Press Release

About 2% of adult U.S. residents under correctional supervision in 2022

WASHINGTON ― An estimated 5,407,300 persons were under the supervision of adult correctional systems in the United States at year-end 2022, and 3,668,800 of those were under community supervision, according to Correctional Populations in the United States, 2022 – Statistical Tables and Probation and Parole in the United States, 2022, two reports released today by the Bureau of Justice Statistics. The adult correctional system is responsible for all correctional supervision in the United States, including both persons incarcerated in prisons and jails and persons supervised in the community on probation and parole.

About 1 in 48 adult U.S. residents (2%) was under some form of correctional supervision at the end of 2022. More than two-thirds of persons under correctional supervision were supervised in the community on probation or parole (3,668,800), while almost one-third (1,827,600) were incarcerated in state or federal prisons or local jails. The total adult correctional supervision population decreased about 1% from year-end 2021 to year-end 2022, while the incarcerated population increased 3%. The total adult community supervision population has decreased 23% since 2012.

For the 15th straight year, the adult correctional supervision rate declined in 2022, from a peak of 3,210 under supervision per 100,000 adult U.S. residents in 2007 to 2,060 per 100,000 in 2022. The incarceration rate, 700 per 100,000 adult U.S. residents, increased in 2022 (up from 680 per 100,000 in 2021 and 660 per 100,000 in 2020).

“While the incarceration rate increased in 2022 for the second consecutive year, it was still lower at year-end than the prepandemic rate,” said Kevin M. Scott, Ph.D., BJS Acting Director.

In 2022, the number of persons under community supervision in the United States decreased 1%, from 3,705,500 on January 1 to 3,668,800 on December 31. The probation population remained relatively stable (from 2,981,500 to 2,990,900; remaining under 3 million for the second consecutive year), while the number of persons on parole fell from 745,300 to 698,800 (down 6.2%) during 2022.

The parole population decreased in 36 states and the District of Columbia during 2022. The 2022 decrease in parole population followed a 7.1% decline in 2021, the two largest decreases since BJS began collecting probation and parole information on a yearly basis in 1980.

“The continued decline in persons on parole contributed to the lowest rate of adults on community supervision in 36 years,” Dr. Scott said.

In 2022, the rate of individuals under community supervision fell to 1,401 per 100,000 adult U.S. residents, the lowest recorded rate since 1986 (1,358 per 100,000). The parole rate declined from 309 to 267 per 100,000 adult U.S. residents, while the probation rate increased slightly from 1,140 to 1,142 per 100,000. Entries to probation increased 10.7%, from 1,419,300 in 2021 to 1,571,500 in 2022.

Correctional Populations in the United States, 2022 – Statistical Tables was written by BJS Statisticians Emily D. Buehler, Ph.D., and Rich Kluckow, DSW. Findings are from BJS’s Annual Probation Survey, Annual Parole Survey, National Prisoner Statistics program, Annual Survey of Jails and Census of Jails.

Probation and Parole in the United States, 2022 was written by BJS Statistician Danielle Kaeble. Findings are from BJS’s Annual Probation Survey, Annual Parole Survey and Federal Justice Statistics Program, which are the only national data collections that cover community corrections in all 50 states, the District of Columbia and the U.S. federal system.

These reports, related documents and additional information about BJS’s statistical publications and programs are available on the BJS website at bjs.ojp.gov.

About the Bureau of Justice Statistics

The Bureau of Justice Statistics is the U.S. Department of Justice’s principal federal agency responsible for collecting, analyzing and disseminating reliable statistics on crime and criminal justice in the United States. Kevin M. Scott, Ph.D., is the acting director. More information about BJS and criminal justice statistics can be found at bjs.ojp.gov.

About the Office of Justice Programs

The Office of Justice Programs provides federal leadership, grants, training, technical assistance and other resources to improve the nation's capacity to prevent and reduce crime; advance equity and fairness in the administration of justice; assist victims; and uphold the rule of law. More information about OJP and its program offices – the Bureau of Justice Assistance, Bureau of Justice Statistics, National Institute of Justice, Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention, Office for Victims of Crime, and SMART Office – can be found at www.ojp.gov.

Date Published: May 30, 2024