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World Factbook of Criminal Justice Systems: India

NCJ Number
Date Published
June 1993
This report provides information and statistics on India's criminal justice system, including its police, courts, and corrections.

India's Constitution provides for a quasi-federal system of government. The President acts as Head of State. A Council of Ministers, headed by the Prime Minister, aids and advises the President. The Council of Ministers is collectively responsible to the Lok Sabha, the lower house of Parliament. The country is divided into 25 States, each headed by a governor appointed by the Union Government. India's criminal justice system is a legacy of the British system. It has four subsystems: the legislature (Parliament), enforcement (police), adjudication (courts), and corrections (prisons and community facilities). The legal system is a mix of adversarial and accusatorial features. In civil law, there has been a conscious effort to respect and preserve the tenets of both Hindu and Muslim jurisprudence. An informal justice system operates in the rural areas in civil and family matters. One section of this report discusses the classification of crime and crime statistics. A section on crime victims addresses the groups most victimized by crime, victims' assistance agencies, the role of victims in prosecution and sentencing, and victims' rights legislation. The section on police focuses on administration, resources, technology, training and qualifications, discretion, and accountability. A discussion of prosecutorial and judicial process considers the rights of the accused and criminal procedures. Other sections describe the judicial system, penalties and sentencing, prisons, and extradition and treaties. 13 references

Date Published: June 1, 1993