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Probation and Parole in the United States, 2019

NCJ Number
Date Published
July 2021

This report presents national data on adult offenders under community supervision on probation or parole in 2019. It includes characteristics of the population, such as sex, race or Hispanic origin, and most serious offense. The report details how offenders move onto and off community supervision, such as completing their term of supervision, being incarcerated, absconding, or other unsatisfactory outcomes while in the community. Findings are based on data from BJS’s 2019 Annual Probation Survey, Annual Parole Survey, and Federal Justice Statistics Program.

  • The total number of adults on probation or parole decreased by an estimated 41,300 offenders (down 0.9%) from 2018 to 2019.
  • An estimated 1 in 59 adults in the U.S. were under community supervision at the end of 2019, down from 1 in 46 in 2000.
  • The adult probation population declined 1.3% from 2018 to 2019, while the adult parole population remained relatively stable (with a 0.1% increase).
  • During 2019, the probation population increased in 22 states and declined in 27 states, the District of Columbia, and the U.S. federal system.
  • During 2019, the parole population increased in 26 states and the U.S. federal system and decreased in 23 states and the District of Columbia.

Date Published: July 22, 2021