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Prisoners in 2019

NCJ Number
Date Published
October 2020
Publication Series

This report is the 94th in a series that began in 1926. It provides counts of prisoners under the jurisdiction of state and federal correctional authorities in 2019 and includes findings on admissions, releases, and imprisonment rates. It describes demographic and offense characteristics of state and federal prisoners.


  • The number of prisoners under state or federal jurisdiction decreased by an estimated 33,600 (down 2%) from 2018 to 2019, and by 184,700 (down 11%) since 2009, the year that the number of prisoners peaked in the United States.
  • In 2019, the imprisonment rate fell for the 11th consecutive year, hitting its lowest point since 1995.
  • The imprisonment rate fell 3% from 2018 to 2019, and 17% from 2009 to 2019.
  • From 2009 to 2019, the total imprisonment rate fell 29% among black residents, 24% among Hispanic residents, and 12% among white residents.

Date Modified: October 23, 2020

In table 10, the incorrect number of U.S. Hispanic female residents and other female residents (denominator) was used in calculating the imprisonment rates of Hispanic and other females. These rates were revised. An associated bullet on page 16 was revised as follows: "The imprisonment rate of Hispanic females (63 per 100,000 Hispanic female U.S. residents) was 1.3 times the rate of white females in 2019, and was higher than all age groups except white females ages 45 to 49."

Date Published: October 22, 2020