State and federal prisons reported holding 22,713 inmates who were HIV positive in 1994. The inmates were 2.3% of the total prison population, about the same percentage as in 1991. Among state prisoners, women (3.9%) were more likely than men (2.4%) to be HIV positive. Almost 5,000 inmates, 1/2 of 1% of all prisoners, had confirmed AIDS at yearend 1994; this rate was seven times that of the general population. For each state and the federal prison system, the report provides the number of HIV-positive and active AIDS inmates, the number of AIDS-related deaths, and HIV-testing policies.