BJS has established a Criminal Justice Working Papers (CJWP) series, which provides preliminary analysis of substantive, technical, and methodological issues. These papers are works in progress designed to encourage discussion, promote the sharing of relevant findings and knowledge in a timely manner, contribute to scholarly debate, solicit constructive feedback on the research, and inform continuing work in the topic area. The views expressed in a working paper are those of the authors and not necessarily those of BJS or the U.S. Department of Justice. The authors accept responsibility for errors. Access detailed guidelines for the BJS Working Paper Series page and read the first paper, Federal Sentencing Disparity: 2005–2012.