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Glossary

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Domestic violence

Refers to violence between spouses, or spousal abuse but can also include cohabitants and non-married intimate partners.

Domestic violence courts

Address criminal cases that involve offenses against persons who are related in some way, most often through intimate partnership or family relationship. They include integrated domestic violence courts, which handle both domestic violence and family issues (e.g., custody and visitation).

Driving while intoxicated (DWI) courts

Dedicated to changing the behavior of alcohol- or drug-dependent repeat offenders or high-blood alcohol content offenders arrested for DWI or driving under the influence (DUI). The goal of the court is to protect public safety while addressing the root cause of impaired driving. They include juvenile DWI courts.

Drug courts

Specialized courts designed to handle cases involving offenders who abuse addictive substances. Handle an underlying drug problem contributing to criminal behavior using nontraditional judicial proceedings and treatment with team-based services. These courts include adult, juvenile, and reentry drug courts.

Drug offenses

Drug trafficking—Includes trafficking, sales, distribution, possession with intent to distribute or sell, manufacturing, and smuggling of controlled substances. It does not include possession of controlled substances.

Other drug offenses—Includes possession of controlled substances, prescription violations, possession of drug paraphernalia, and other drug law violations.

Drug possession

Includes possession of an illegal drug, but excludes possession with intent to sell.

Drug trafficking

Includes manufacturing, distributing, selling, smuggling, and possession with intent to sell.

Electronic vandalism or sabotage

The deliberate or malicious damage, defacement, destruction or other alteration of electronic files, data, web pages, or programs.

Embezzlement

The unlawful misappropriation of money or other things of value, by the person to whom the property was entrusted (typically an employee), for his or her own purpose. Includes instances in which a computer was used to wrongfully transfer, counterfeit, forge or gain access to money, property, financial documents, insurance policies, deeds, use of rental cars, or various services by the person to whom they were entrusted.

Ethnicity

A classification based on Hispanic culture and origin, regardless of race. Persons are asked directly if they are Spanish, Hispanic, or Latino before being asked about their racial category.

Excessive use of force

The application of lawful use of force in too many separate incidents.

Expected average length of stay

The average daily population (ADP) divided by the number of annual admissions, then multiplied by the number of days in a year.

Family court

A court, usually with a limited jurisdiction, that handles legal cases involving a family, especially controversies between parent and child or husband and wife.

Family problem-solving courts (or family courts)

Address juvenile or family court cases of child abuse or neglect, adjudication of parental rights, and custody and visitation in which parental substance abuse is a contributing factor.

Federal arrest-related death

A death that occurs when the event causing the death (e.g., gunshot wound, self- inflicted injury, cardiac arrest, fall from a height, drowning) occurs while the decedent's freedom to leave is restricted by federal law enforcement personnel acting in an official capacity. Arrest-related deaths include—
  • any death attributed to any use of force by federal law enforcement personnel
  • any death that occurred while the decedent's freedom to leave was restricted by federal law enforcement prior to, during, or following an arrest—
    • while detained for questioning or investigation (e.g., Terry stop)
    • during the process of apprehension (e.g., pursuit of criminal suspect or standoff with law enforcement)
    • while in the custody of, or shortly after restraint by, law enforcement (even if the decedent was not formally under arrest)
    • during transport to or from law enforcement, detention, incarceration, or medical facilities
    • any death while the decedent was confined in a temporary holding facility designed to hold detainees for no longer than 72 hours (e.g., booking center, holding area, or staging location)
    • any death that occurred during an interaction with federal law enforcement personnel during response to medical or mental-health assistance (e.g., response to suicidal persons).

Federal court

A court established by the federal government that has jurisdiction over questions of federal law.

Federal death in custody

A death that occurs while the decedent was detained or incarcerated for violating federal criminal or administrative law and was housed in any facility designed to detain or incarcerate such individuals for longer than 72 hours. This includes all detainee or inmate deaths that occurred in any federal corrections, pre-trial, or administrative detention facility or any facility under federal contract to criminally hold, detain, or imprison or administratively hold or detain individuals.

Federal Firearm Licensee (FFL)

A federally licensed firearms dealer is licensed by ATF to engage in the business of manufacturing, importing, or dealing in firearms. An FFL must be enrolled with the FBI NICS Section in order to request a NICS background check.

Federal prisons

Prison facilities run by the Federal Bureau of Prisons (BOP). Prisoners housed in these facilities are under the legal authority of the federal government. This excludes private facilities under exclusive contract with BOP.

Federal Supervised Release

Established by the Sentencing Reform Act of 1984 (SRA), Federal supervised release is a term of conditional community supervision set by the court at the time of sentencing. The SRA also abolished release by a parole board, required a determinate sentence term, and limited the amount of good time that can be credited toward the sentence.

Felony

An offense, as murder or burglary, of graver character than those called misdemeanors, especially those commonly punished in the U.S. by imprisonment for more than a year.

Felony or serious misdemeanor

The category of offenses for which fingerprints and criminal history information are accepted by the FBI and entered in the Bureau's files, including the Interstate Identification Index (III) system. Serious misdemeanor is defined to exclude certain minor offenses, such as drunkenness or minor traffic offenses.

Financial fraud

In the National Crime Victimization Survey's Supplemental Fraud Survey, financial fraud is defined as acts that “intentionally and knowingly deceive the victim by misrepresenting, concealing, or omitting facts about promised goods, services, or other benefits and consequences that are nonexistent, unnecessary, never intended to be provided, or deliberately distorted for the purpose of monetary gain.” (See Stanford Center on Longevity. (2015). Framework for a taxonomy of fraud. https://longevity.stanford.edu/framework-for-a-taxonomy-of-fraud/)

Financial fraud

In the National Crime Victimization Survey's Supplemental Fraud Survey, financial fraud is defined as acts that “intentionally and knowingly deceive the victim by misrepresenting, concealing, or omitting facts about promised goods, services, or other benefits and consequences that are nonexistent, unnecessary, never intended to be provided, or deliberately distorted for the purpose of monetary gain.” (See Stanford Center on Longevity. (2015). Framework for a taxonomy of fraud. https://longevity.stanford.edu/framework-for-a-taxonomy-of-fraud/)

Fraud

The intentional misrepresentation of information or identity to deceive others, the unlawful use of a credit or debit card or ATM, or the use of electronic means to transmit deceptive information, in order to obtain money or other things of value. Fraud may be committed by someone inside or outside the business. Includes instances in which a computer was used to defraud the business of money, property, financial documents, insurance policies, deeds, use of rental cars, or various services by forgery, misrepresented identity, credit card or wire fraud. Excludes incidents of embezzlement.